Sexuality is three-dimensional: it consists of the biological, psycho-physiological and socio-cultural aspects. That is why the satisfaction or dissatisfaction that derives from the sexual act is determined by a number of factors such as anxiety, imagination or lack of confidence. They are the ones who shape the various known dysfunctions that affect people's sexual lives. What are the most common sexual problems?
Factors causing sexual problems
As we have seen, the sexual act is not an isolated practice of the environment in which we are. It is here that influences a large number of bio-psycho-social elements, from expectations and lived experiences, through the genetic, anatomical and hormonal disposition, to an infinity of cultural, educational, ethical and religious.
Hence the effectiveness of sexual stimulation is determined by sensory or physical, psychological, attentional, emotional, motivational and cognitive factors. This is why the adequacy of all the organs and sensory systems, the interaction between the partners or the capacity that we have to focus our attention at that moment is important.
Our emotional and motivational state also has its influence. If we are tired or if we suffer from anxiety, it is common that our libido diminishes. In the same way, fatigue or cognitive aspects, such as sexual fantasies, also determine the satisfaction at the origin of this stimulation.
Malfunctions and sexual deviations
Even if dysfunctions and deviations are pathologies of sexual behavior, it is necessary to differentiate between them:
- Deviations are appropriate sexual responses in the presence of inappropriate sexual stimulation. For example: fetishism, masochism, disguise or zoophilia.
- Sexual dysfunction is an alteration of the response in the presence of appropriate sexual stimulation. Thus, according to the level of sexual desire, that of the excitation or the experimentation of the orgasm, one can differentiate different types. Let's deepen this later in this article.
Male sexual problems
This is one of the most common. It occurs when the man is not able to be erect or maintain an erection to complete a sexual relationship. It is also known as impotence and usually it does not affect sexual drive.
We think that in 20 to 30% of cases, erectile dysfunction has a psychological origin. For example, a very strict moral education, inadequate sexual information or previous traumatic experiences that have not been developed in the right way. In addition, there are drugs that can cause impotence as a side effect. Diseases such as diabetes or hypertension, heart or hormonal problems, as well as tobacco and alcohol also contribute to its onset.
Early or late ejaculation
Premature ejaculation is the inability to control the expulsion of semen in the desired degree. Although ejaculation is often associated with the end of a sexual relationship, it does not have to end that way. For its part, late ejaculation consists of the delay or absence of the latter. Either it is late or it is completely non-existent. It becomes a problem if it occurs too frequently.
The origin of these two sexual problems usually comes from psychological factors. This is why the intervention usually concerns controlling the excitementthat one intervenes directly on the stimulations which produce it or that one resorts to certain mental resources which inhibit it to a certain degree.
Female sexual problems
We are referring here to the difficulty of having sex with penetration, because of the involuntary contraction of the muscles of the lower third of the vagina. In other words, spasms occur in these muscles, which closes the vagina and prevents penetration. Depending on its origin, there are two types of vaginismus: primary vaginismus (the woman has never been able to have painless intercourse) and secondary vaginismus (the woman has been able to have painless intercourse) before the onset of vaginismus).
Vaginism obeys physical or psychological factors or a combination of both. Furthermore, it is one of the sexual problems that usually does not get worse if it is not treated. It only worsens if the woman continues to try penetration despite the pain it causes: in these cases, the woman "learns" to increase the involuntary contraction to prevent penetration, and with it the pain.
We are here referring to the inability to reach orgasm. People with this problem fail to reach this climax in sexual intercourse.
It is one of the most common sexual problems for both women and men, although it is more concerned with women because of their morphology, given the greater number of nerve and muscle structures they present. In men, anaorgasmia is harder to detect because generally, we think that if they ejaculate, it is that they reached orgasm.
Thus, some men, and especially pre-teens, enjoy without ejaculating. On the other hand, because of certain paralysis, there are men who reach orgasm without ejaculating, and other men who experience the orgasmic sensation a few seconds after ejaculation. On the other hand, there are those who have multiple orgasms just before the final ejaculation and finally those who ejaculate in anhedonic or anesthetic way without feeling orgasm.
Anaorgasmia is usually the result of psychological factors such as some type of sexual trauma, depression, anxiety, fears or misconceptions about sex and sexuality. It can be treated, and only in 5% of cases can no solution be found.
Dyspareunia or coitalia
This is painful or embarrassing intercourse before, after or during intercourse. Dyspareunia occurs in both women and men, but affects women more often. It is characterized by the existence of genital discomfort associated with penetration. In men, this pain usually occurs during ejaculation. A very likely cause for this symptomatology is urinary tract infection.
In women, dyspareunia may be associated with vaginismus and causes burns as well as contractions. If it does not occur at the beginning of the sexual act but after, it can be the result of the reduction of lubrication. The causes are more physical than psychological.
Loss of sexual desire
This dysfunction affects both genders equally. In the case of women, its cause may be hormonal, due to a low level of estrogen, fruit, among other possible origins, menopause. In this sense, usually, desire also weakens during pregnancy and breastfeeding. In the case of men, 70% of cases of loss of sexual desire are due to lack of testosterone. The remaining 30% respond to causes related to stress or couple problems.
On the other hand, the loss of desire can be located between two different classifications:
- Primary-Secondary: primary consists of a lack of desire experienced by those who have never experienced it, or at very low levels. The secondary school would be the one that would affect people only if they had already had sexual desire and found that the latter was able to reduce significantly to negatively affect their sex life.
- Generalized-Situational: on the other hand, we would talk abouta generalized loss of desire when the person has lost sexual desire in all situations and with everyone. On the contrary, we would talk abouta loss of situational or circumstantial desire when this desire is reduced only in certain situations or with certain people.
To summarize, we could say that the sexual act is a behavior that responds to more complex mechanisms of what is generally considered. Sexual stimulation is likely to be altered by a multitude of factors. This is why aspects that may surround sexuality, such as communication, feeling of security or intimacy, are fundamental.