Is there a cognitive deterioration associated with drug use? The answer is clear: yes.Drug use still affects brain function in one way or another. And she always does it in a negative way.
Every year,more than 20,000 people die prematurely because of excessive alcohol consumption.Because alcohol is a drug, even if its consumption is not standardized. But what happens with the rest of the drugs?
A good deal of research supports the idea that frequent drug use will lead to profound deterioration.There is also a point from which the impact of this consumption seems to be no longer able to be modified. Even if we tried to stop indefinitely taking drugs.
Why do we consume drugs?
The answer to this question is not obvious. It is impossible to find only one cause in all existing cases. It is true that today, we find a real social concern. However, this one is dominated by a great ignorance, also social.When we talk about drugs, we just repeat preconceptions.All lies and meaningless claims that one hears continue to flow freely.
The drug is usually close to two points: youth and crime. As a result, the information we can provide seems to be biased from the beginning.Drug abuse creates health problems of the highest order.It is also the cause of many crimes and the culture broth of many broken families.
Thus, the frequent and intense consumption of drugs has an impact on the body. An impact to which the latter is not prepared. On the other hand, we can not isolate these recreational substances from society, which has made possible the explosion of their consumption.In many cases, the social environment has not only facilitated this consumption; it has also motivated it.By normalizing or minimizing the negative effects of consumption or by intensifying the problems that the person wants to escape.
How does the cognitive deterioration associated with drug use occur?
Drug abuse can lead to morphological changes in brain structure.These morphological alterations have the following effects:
- Loss of brain volume
- Reduction of the percentage of gray matter
- Reduction of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid volume.
- Decrease in the size of neurons
- Neuronal death
- Brain atrophy
Harmful effects can also occur through the metabolic reorganization of synaptic connectivity circuits.This metabolic reorganization occurs as a result of the processes of tolerance, abstinence, and cessation.
These processes, common to all addictions, provokebiochemical adaptations in the projection systems of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine.These neurotransmitters interact with glutamate receptors. They can thus block the mechanisms of development and long-term depression in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens.
Finally,they can cause alterations in cerebral vasculature, vasoconstriction, cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction.The negative consequences of substance abuse are therefore quite numerous, do not you think?
What do studies say about the cognitive deterioration associated with drug use?
We now know that the cognitive deterioration associated with drug use is a reality.But how does drug use affect cognitive performance?
In terms of memory, people who consume more alcohol and cannabis and less cocainea greater deficit in working memory than in immediate memory.The longer the consumption lasts, the more impact it will have on the working memory.
As for the executive functions,patients who consume cannabis and alcohol over a long period of time have a lower ability to interfere.This means they display lower inhibition on automatic responses.
We also observe that their attention decreases a lot.They need more time to perform activities that require logical and sequential thinking.However, verbal fluency in the phonological domain is better preserved. This would not be the case with other types of drugs.
As we see,drug use leads to neuropsychological and neuroanatomical changes.These changes in turn produce functional neuroadaptation in the cognitive, motivational, behavioral, and emotional functions that affect the daily psychosocial functioning and quality of life of dependent people.
These altered functions are related to theability to focus, focus, integrate, process information and execute action plans.In addition, these modifications would act as variables that support consumption as part of a broader bio-psychosocial explanatory model of addiction.