Individuals tend to use certain strategies to manage problems. These confrontational efforts are known as adaptation resources. They can be intentional or involuntary. Theywe help to cope with the demands and conflicts that are opposed to us and that exceed the resources available to a person.
Each of us has a different ability to face different challenges or situations because of our experiences and our learning. We will also use different strategies to successfully overcome the obstacles that will arise.
It is important to have such resources. Indeed, the more rich and varied they are, the more we will face the difficulties and the obstacles in a satisfying manner.
"Emotions are the result of a process of cognitively valuing the situation, coping resources and what happens if these resources are used."-Lazarus and Folkman, 1986-
When a set of environmental or environmental requirements appear (for example, a peak workload that will last several weeks), the personmust provide an answer to adapt to the situation.In other words, it must adapt to these requirements by starting up its adaptation resources.
For example, we mobilize our coping resources to resist when we face a situation that can lead to stress or anxiety. This author therefore considers thatstress is a vast process of adaptation to the environment. A process without which we could not live.
Good or bad mobilization of adaptation resources
Two situations can occur in the face of an unforeseen event. The first is that the mobilization of our resources is adequate. In this case, adaptation occurs and we could continue to make normal use of our resources. But there can also bea second scenario. When what the environment requires of us is excessive.
Adaptation resources allow us to adapt to different situations in the environment.Share
The subject perceives, therefore, that there is an imbalance between what is necessary to solve the problem and the skills or competences he has to deal with it.This colossal requirement therefore generates two types of reactions in the person.
Physiological on the one hand. It could be an increase in heart rate, sweating, high blood pressure, or dilated pupils. And on the other hand,Emotional negative valence reactions, including anxiety, anger, and depression.
Imagine that our spouse tells us that he has to go abroad for professional reasons. First, according to Lazarus, the person would make a primary assessment of the situation. In other words, sheyearwould analyze whether the event is positive or negative. It would therefore consider the consequences that this event has and would have on the future.
She would then do a second evaluation in which the attention would stop being put on the event, to focus on the person. The affected person would then analyze the capabilities available to them to face this new reality. In other words,she would try to gather all her adaptation resources to use them.This stress response would be generated (or not) in the person primarily based on this last estimate.
A taxonomy of these strategies has traditionally been carried out taking into account different aspects.The evaluation of the event, the problematic of the latter and the emotion aroused. The adaptation resources are thus generally divided into 2 classes, according to these characteristics:
This type of resource isto deal with the situation by giving it meaning and attributing a certain meaning to the problems that have arisen. They are based on the search for solutions, tend to restore the cognitive imbalance generated and to solve or modify the problem. They refer to confrontation and the search for social support and solutions.
His strategies are normally used when the stressful event is perceived as controllable.For example: we have too many tasks to do in the day. This causes us anxiety and even discomfort. How can we adapt to this situation? By mobilizing this type of strategy. In other words, those for which we believe that by using them thoroughly we will be able to do all these tasks.
Unlike the previous ones, these schemes are generallyused when the situation generating stress is perceived as uncontrollable. We are no longer trying to focus on the problem. We focus instead on the emotions that this event arouses. And on getting rid of it. Only in this way will the person be able to relax. These strategies aim to restore the emotional balance.
These are self-control, distancing, positive reassessment, self-incrimination and escape / avoidance. Adaptation resourcesbased on avoidance seek to temporarily move away from the problem.The person will try to escape by doing other activities. She will take a distance from what causes her so much stress. She will be able to face the situation again when she has managed to minimize the emotional impact.
These adaptation resources can be modified, they are not fixed. They are also flexible. They can also be acquiredwith appropriate counseling and psychological support.