The different forms of sexual abuse (as well as other forms of abuse) are related to culture, society, history and adopted laws, and so there is still no international consensus. The truth is that many professionals are still working on sexual abuse and other forms of sexual abuse from a sexophobic point of view. For example, some do not consider some physical abuse, such as genital mutilation, to be sexual abuse.
Felix López says that two professional and social mistakes are made: forgetting other forms of abuse and not including a positive approach to child sexuality. As he rightly says, we finally broke up the "social and professional silence", so we will put special emphasis on the different forms of sexual abuse.
"It is not enough that you do not abuse me sexually, you must answer my questions, give me sex education, accept the sexuality of my childhood and teach me to love."
-Felix Lopez, 2008-
9 forms of sexual abuse
Sexual Abuse any action (intentional, non-accidental and / or omission) that may be harmful to a person's sexuality and, consequently, to his subsequent sexual and emotional development. In the category of "sexual abuse", Félix López proposes 9 forms of sexual abuse on children that can be applied to anyone, whatever their age:
- Mutilation or personal injury in areas of obvious sexual importance. Some examples would be the mutilation of the clitoris, breasts or pressure with materials that prevent their growth, etc.
- Sexual abuse. The abuser is usually older in power and knowingly and uses a person who can not consent (given his age, his mental or social limitations, because of his submission …). The forms and strategies used by the abusers are very diverse, for example by coercion or deception, or by Internet (sexting, grooming, etc …).
- Sexual exploitation. This is the sale and / or purchase of sexual services or any type of commercial mediation in this type of activity. In no case is it a free decision on the part of the exploited person.
- Pornography It involves getting people involved in the production, marketing, sale, purchase, distribution or use of the content without their consent. In no case is it a free decision and, like sexual exploitation, it is commercial in nature.
- Forced marriages of minors. These commitments are made by adults in a variety of ways, and the victims are often women.
- Do not accept the sexual identity. For example, not recognizing and accepting transsexuality and transgender is an attack on personal identity, against the most authentic self. It involves a lot of suffering and very negative effects on all aspects of life.
- Do not accept sexual orientation. For example, not accepting homosexuality or bisexuality means not respecting the fact that all people have the same sexual and loving needs, regardless of the gender of the people with whom they want to meet them. Not to accept sexual orientation is an attack on oneself and one's sexual and amorous life.
- Gender-based violence, all types of domestic violence and unequal educational models. Gender and domestic violence are very specific forms of abuse that do not promote good socialization as men or women. With regard to sexist education, especially one that discriminates against women from childhood, it leads to deficiencies that hinder the proper sexual and emotional development of both sexes.
- Sexual neglect :
- Virtual or real access to violent, sexophobic sexuality, etc.
- Non-acceptance of sexuality among people with disabilities : It is a question of refusing sex education and sexual rights to people with disabilities, since it is a principle of integration and normalization in the sexual, emotional and romantic fields. The reverse implies the violation of fundamental rights.
- Significant gaps in sex education in the family and at school It is important not to deny basic information and to provide adequate positive sexuality education in childhood and adolescence that helps to avoid well-known risks.
The different forms of sexual abuse in childhood
These acts attack prepubertal or adolescent minors, truncating their development in many ways. The most common sexual abuse in girls is the caress below the waist and exhibitionism. In children, it is caresses, below and above the waist, and masturbation.
When violence is repeated, the effects increase in 40% to 50% of cases. This is due to an increased feeling of helplessness, the possibility that strategies are more aggressive and the effect of temporal intermittency.
On the other hand, it is important to educate children about the respect of the body in general, theirs and that of others, both in a sexual context and outside of it. In short, it is necessary to accept infantile sexuality, to provide education and protection, and to prevent any form of sexual abuse.
López, F. (2014). Sexual abuse and other forms of sexual abuse. Madrid. Síntesis editorial.