Ability to solve problems, or to create precious objects in different cultures, is for the neuropsychologist Howard Gardner, the definition of intelligence.
Gardner is very famous for his theory of multiple intelligences, in which he explains that each person has at least 8 types of intelligences or innate abilities. In his book, "Les intelligences multiples", he estimates that the different cognitive intelligences that inhabit us are 8 in number.
This is the intelligence used to solve problems of logic and mathematics. It's the ability to use numbers in precise ways and to reason correctly.
It is found in scientists, mathematicians, engineers, and all those who use reasoning and deduction (work with abstract concepts, experiences, etc.). They use the left hemisphere of their brain.
It is the intelligence that makes it possible to use words, orally or in writing, effectively. She is the one who finds herself with writers, journalists, communicators, students who learn languages, write stories, read, and so on. This type of intelligence requires both hemispheres of the brain.
It is the intelligence used by our body to express ideas, feelings, and the ability of our hands to transform objects.
Equilibrium, flexibility, speed, coordination, but also synesthesia, or the perception of distances and volumes, are particularly evident in this type of intelligence. Athletes, surgeons, craftsmen, dancers are among the professions that use this intelligence.
The musical intelligence
It is the intelligence that perceives, transforms and defines music and its derivatives. The sensitivity, the rhythm, the tone and the timbre are associated with this way of seeing things.
This intelligence is especially found among composers, conductors, musicians, in other words people who are attracted by the sounds of nature and melodies, and who often beat the pace by typing an object in rhythm, with their hands or their feet.
It is the ability to think in three dimensions, a faculty that allows one to perceive external, internal images, to transform them, to modify them, to produce or to decode graphical information.
Pilots, sculptors, painters, sailors and architects are particularly endowed with this intelligence. They like making frames, paintings, drawings, drawings, plans.
It is the ability to differentiate, classify and understand the environment around us, ie objects, animals or plants (both urban and rural).
They are also faculties of observation, reflection and exposure on our environment. Farmers, botanists, hunters and ecologists are endowed with it, so it is observed in people who love plants and animals.
It is the ability to feel empathy for others. This requires a special sensitivity to understand the facial expressions (voice, gestures, posture) and to be able to answer them. She is present among politicians, salesmen and great teachers.
It is intelligence that makes it possible to build an exact valuation of oneself, of what one is capable of doing in one's life. It requires reflection, self-understanding and self-esteem.
It is especially noticeable among theologians, psychologists, sociologists and philosophers, among others.
This theory considers that all human beings have these 8 intelligences, in different proportions, but that there is no "pure player ".
Gardner argues that education must be geared to orienting students according to their abilities and dominant intelligence style, so that they can take advantage of their strengths, and train themselves at a young age to face a world that is more and more competitive.
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